Pros and cons of dating objects with carbon 14 articles
The original design, dating back to the 1970s, uses a dry solid polymer electrolyte.
This electrolyte resembles a plastic-like film that does not conduct electricity but allows ions exchange (electrically charged atoms or groups of atoms).
The maximum charge and discharge current on most packs are is limited to between 1C and 2C.
In addition, the cell temperature is monitored to prevent temperature extremes.
With a cell thickness measuring as little as one millimeter (0.039 inches), equipment designers are left to their own imagination in terms of form, shape and size.
Unfortunately, the dry lithium-polymer suffers from poor conductivity.
In addition, the self-discharge is less than half compared to nickel-cadmium, making lithium-ion well suited for modern fuel gauge applications. Despite its overall advantages, lithium-ion has its drawbacks.
It is fragile and requires a protection circuit to maintain safe operation.
In 1991, the Sony Corporation commercialized the first lithium-ion battery. The energy density of lithium-ion is typically twice that of the standard nickel-cadmium. The load characteristics are reasonably good and behave similarly to nickel-cadmium in terms of discharge.